The Best Way To Increase Your Pet’s Lifespan While Saving Money

    “You are loving your pet to death!” This is a common phrase veterinarians tell pet owners. We know you love your pets and you want to make them happy. Providing food for your animals is one of the best ways to show your love for your pet. They respond with wagging tails and kisses to your offerings of food, and they learn to become more persuasive, and adorable in their requests for food. 

    Unfortunately, obesity is a huge problem for pets and has been shown to decrease their lifespan. One study in Labrador retrievers showed that slimmer dogs lived a median of 2.5 years longer than overweight dogs. Obesity causes problems such as joint disease, diabetes and breathing problems, and could possibly increase their risk of certain types of cancer.     

    Just as with people, the increasing availability of highly palatable, high calorie foods and a more sedentary lifestyle increases the likelihood that your pet will become obese. Today, more than half of dogs are considered overweight, while 20% are considered obese. The good news is, this is a disease that usually costs nothing to treat! 

Weight Loss Plan

    Wouldn’t it be great to have a personal chef, just like the rich and famous? Someone who would prepare your meals for you so you could achieve your own weight loss goals? Well, you can be that personal chef for your pet, without having to spend hours in the kitchen! All it takes is a little knowledge and commitment. This article will show you step by step, how to assess how much your pet has to lose, how much to feed and how long it will take.

    It is recommended that pets lose no more than 2% of their body weight per week. Ideally, we will shoot for 1% per week. Losing more than that could cause the pet’s metabolism to slow down, they will feel hungry, and could lose muscle instead of burning fat. Decreasing the diet too much results in adaptive down regulation of the resting energy requirement which results in weight rebound, or the propensity to regain after a successful weight loss program.

Consulting A Veterinarian Is The Best Way To Get Started

    It is best to spend some time with a veterinarian to work out a good weight loss plan, but you can start the process at home on your own too. If you feel you are not feeding your dog very much at all, but they seem to be keeping the weight on, then it might be best to consult a veterinarian to help determine whether a disease such as hypothyroidism might be the problem.

     Prescription weight loss diets available that are low in calories but high in nutrition, to ensure that your pet is getting enough vitamins and minerals while reducing their caloric intake. If you simply reduce the volume of the current food they are eating too much, their diet could be deficient in vitamins and minerals. 

    If your dog’s insatiable appetite becomes too much of a problem, a prescription medication called Slentrol ( is available that may help when all else has failed. 

Know Your Pet’s Body Condition Score (BCS)

    Just like in people, the number on the scale doesn’t matter as much as the body composition, the balance of fat and muscle. The body condition score assesses the amount of fat build up on your pet’s body, and is a way to numerically express your pet’s body composition.     There are 2 scales to assess body condition; the 5 point scale in which the ideal is a 3, and the 9 point scale in which an ideal body condition is a 4/5. I usually will refer to the 9 point scale.

    Ideally, you want the ribs to be easily felt, and when viewed from above, your pet will have a nice waist visible behind the ribs. When viewed from the side you will see a nice tuck up right in front of the hind legs.

    Research has shown that in dogs BCS is related to body fat percentage, with a body fat of 15-25% being ideal. However, this can be affected by breed. For example, Greyhounds that have a BCS of 5, may only have 7% body fat, while Huskies and Rottweilers have a higher percentage of body fat with an ideal BCS. Using the 5 point scale, each point represents a 10% change in percent body weight from the ideal, while using the 9 point scale each point represents a change in 5% body weight from the ideal.

    Overweight dogs are considered 10-20% above ideal body weight, while dogs are considered obese if they are 20% above ideal body weight.

Click here to see The Ohio State University’s BCS Chart (

Click here to see The World Small Animal Veterinary Association’s chart (

Also check out Dr. Sophia Yin’s article on how to body condition score your pet (

To really geek out on body condition scoring, check out this article in Clinician’s Brief (

The Do It Yourself Approach

    Take an account of how many calories a day your pet is currently getting. Calories listed on the nutrition label on your food is the same as kilocalories (kcal). To start, get an accurate measurement of the quantity of food your pet is currently getting, measure dry food in measuring cups, or on a scale. You can usually google “How many kcal in ______ food” to find out how many calories are in your dog’s food if you can not find this information on the label. 

    For example, lets say I feed my dog Royal Canin Medium Adult dry dog food. I find on Royal Canin’s website that this food contains 336 kcal per cup. 

    Lets say my dog weighs 26lbs, and I have been feeding my dog 1 cup of food in the morning and 1 cup of food at night. Therefore, my dog has been getting 672 kcal per day. I am feeding according to what the feeding guide says on the back of the bag for my dog’s size assuming he has a medium level of activity.

    If you were feeding any additional food, treats, or human food you would need to add this into the number of kcal per day you are feeding. 

Do It Yourself Calculations: How Much Should I Feed My Pet (Dog Example)

  In order to determine how much you should feed your pet you need to calculate your pet’s Resting Energy Requirement (RER). This is the energy required to perform basic body functions such as digestion, heart, brain and respiratory functions. 

 The formula for calculating RER is 70 multiplied by your pet’s body weight in kilograms to the power of 0.75.

RER= 70*(body weight in kg)^0.75 = kcal/day

to convert lbs to kg, divide your pet’s body weight in lbs by 2.2. 


So for example my 26 lb dog is 11.8kgs and his RER is:

RER=70*(11.8)^0.75 = 446 kcal per day

    Using an iPhone makes this calculation easy. If it has been a while since you’ve thought about order of operations I will let you know you are going to calculate the exponent first, then multiply by 70 (Remember PEMDAS from school?). So in my iPhone I would plug in 11.8 then press the x^y button, then multiply by 70. 

If you really did not want to calculate using exponents, you can use the following linear equation:

RER = 30*(ideal body weight in kg) + 70 = kilocalories to be feed per day.

However, this is only accurate for medium sized pets. This is not accurate for very large or small pets.

    Normally, we would calculate how much to feed based on Maintenance Energy Requirement (MER), the energy requirement of a moderately active dog in a thermoneutral environment. 

For adult dogs:

MER (intact adult): 1.8*RER = _______ kcal/day

MER (neutered adult): 1.6*RER = _______ kcal/day

For adult cats:

MER (neutered cat): 1.2*RER=______kcal/day

So for my neutered 26 lb dog, this would be 714 kcal/ day, which is way more than he has been getting! However, every pet is different, some are more active than others, and have a different metabolism, which is why many pets will gain too much weight if fed according to MER.

For weight loss you can feed just RER to start.

You can go as low as 20% less than RER. 

RER*0.8= ____kcal/day

    Now I look at my dog carefully, and the BCS chart and I determine that my dog is a 7/9. So, he is about 10% overweight and could lose about 2.5 lbs. 

    My dog has been getting 672 kcal per day and RER is 446 kcal per day. This would be a huge and sudden reduction in calories for my dog. I do not want to decrease the amount I have been feeding him too much all at once, or else this may result in him being too hungry, adaptive down regulation of his resting energy requirement, as well as possible muscle loss, which could result in rebound weight gain after stoping the diet. Instead, I am going to gradually reduce how many calories he is going to get instead.

    I will reduce his diet by 20% and then re-weigh him and assess his BCS in 2 weeks. Instead of feeding 672 kcal/day I will feed:

672kcal*0.80=537.6 kcal/day

    Now remember, the Royal Canin dog food I was feeding was 336 kcal/cup, so I am going to calculate how much to feed my dog by dividing my new kcal/day by the calories per cup of food:

kcal/day/kcal/cup = cups/day

537.6kcal/day/336 kcal/cup = 1.6 cups/day.

    If I look on the feeding guidelines on the bag, I see that they recommend 1 3/4 cups a day for a dog of my dog’s weight assuming a low level of activity, which is a little bit higher than what I plan on feeding now. But, my dog is overweight, and fat requires less energy to maintain, so it should be expected that I will feed less food then the bag says. I will also start walking 30 minutes a day with my dog, he has no health problems that would limit his ability, and this is a small increase from his usual activity. You should always take into consideration your pet’s health problems and current level of activity when considering an exercise plan, and start out slow.

    If the amount of food I have to feed to achieve weight loss is significantly less than what the feeding instructions on the bag say, I would be concerned that the diet I am feeding may be to deficient in nutrients, and may consider switching to a low-calorie diet, or diet formulated for weight loss that has a higher concentration of nutrients and lower concentration of calories. 

    When I re-weigh my dog in 2 weeks, I will also re-assess his body condition score. if I find that he has not lost 2% of his body weight, or he has gained weight, I will also consider his BCS, and if his BCS and weight combined aren’t headed in the right direction I will reduce his food by another 20% or to 20% less than RER (0.8*RER). In this case, a further 20% reduction would be 430 kcal/day. I do not want to reduce his food any lower than 20% less than RER without consulting a veterinarian. 

Therefore, his new daily ration will be:

430 kcal/day / 336 kcal/cup = 1.3 cups/day

    Again, I will continue exercise and re-weigh him in 2 weeks. If he has finally achieved a 2% reduction in body weight and his BCS looks better, I can expect his entire weight loss plan to take 10 weeks to complete. If he starts losing weight too rapidly, I may increase his food by 10-20% depending on what I am seeing. It is important to continue to re-weigh AND assess BCS every 2 weeks to ensure that weight loss is not occurring too rapidly.

    Once ideal body condition is achieved, I will have to determine an appropriate balance of food and exercise to maintain that body condition.

How to select the best food for your pet? Visit WSAVA Global Nutrition Committee: Recommendations on Selecting Pet Foods (

If you feel like digging deeper into nutrition, please visit the WSAVA Global Nutrition Committee’s Nutrition Tool-Kit (

Read WSAVA’s The Savvy Cat Owner’s Guide: Nutrition on the Internet (

Read WSAVA’s The Savvy Dog Owner’s Guide: Nutrition on the Internet (

Tips For Feeding In Multi-Pet Homes

    Its not uncommon to have a situation where one pet is obese and the other is thin. The obese pet will eat both pet’s food! Unfortunately, you have to separate them, and you have to pick up the thin pet’s food or put it somewhere where the obese pet can not get to it. 

    Sometimes, this is easier with cats. If the thin cat can jump up high where the obese cat cannot, you can leave food for the thin cat up high on a shelf, counter or book case.

     You can also try a “MeowSpace” ( which is a box with an opening that is controlled by your pet’s tag or microchip that allows only the specified pet to enter. 

    Another device called “SureFlap” ( can work well for both dogs and cats. With this device, the lid to the food bowl only opens when the correct pet approaches. 


    Daily exercise is important for weight loss, but if your pet has joint disease, respiratory disease or other problems related to being overweight. It is best to carefully assess your pet’s comfort level before making the exercise program too strenuous. 

    You have to be creative when coming up with an exercise plan for your cat. Find out what they like. Laser pointers and fishing-line type toys can help encourage them to move around. If you feed kibble, you can put it in a toy like an “Eggserciser” which is a toy they can play with and the kibble slowly falls out. Click here for an example:


Highly palatable treats make great rewards for training, but they are usually high in calories. Instead, you can take a portion of your pet’s daily ration and use it as snacks and as food reward during training. Low calorie foods like carrots also make great treats for dogs and they enjoy the crunching. Of course, stay away from grapes, raisins, chocolate, macadamia nuts and other foods that can be toxic to dogs. Snacks should be limited to less than 10% of total Calories per day.

Take Action

  • weigh your pet every 2 weeks
  • re-assess your pets body condition score every 2 weeks
  • stick to the plan, avoid extra snacks
  • stick to an exercise program appropriate for your dog’s age, breed, and ability
  • communicate the plan to family members
  • consult a veterinarian




UC Davis Nutritional Management Of Weight

How To Treat Your Pet’s Dental Disease Without Getting Ripped Off



I work primarily with non-profit organizations, shelters, animal rescues and on Sundays, I work at vaccine clinics in pet stores. My interactions with the public during these Sunday clinics have made me realize there is a great deal of confusion about dental disease in pets amongst the general public. Many owners are unaware of the severity of the disease and suffering their pet is experiencing. Many of these pets get vaccines year after year from these pet store vaccine clinics, and have not entered a full service veterinary clinic for a complete and thorough exam and veterinary advice for many years, if ever.

When I point out the severity of their pet's dental disease and explain how they need to go to a full service veterinarian for treatment, people are often reluctant to take my advice because they are worried about the cost. They ask me if there are any products they can use at home instead. Unfortunately, when tartar and plaque build up too much, and the pet has gingivitis and gingival recession have set in, trying to treat with products at home becomes a futile task. In this article, I will discuss how to get the most value out of dental care for your pet.

As a veterinarian who works for non-profits, and is heavily involved in animal welfare, my goal is to be able to help as many animals as possible, provide them with the best care for the lowest cost. I seek no financial gain in making these recommendations, I don't profit from performing dentals, these are just the facts and my goal is to reduce animal suffering and improve the human-animal bond.

Dental disease is a huge problem causing pain and illness for the pet, as well as bad breath that can limit the closeness you feel towards your pet. Because of this enormous problem, many companies have started to crop up in an attempt to capitalize on this “pain point”. Beware though, many of these new products will just waste your money and not help your pet, and some can do more harm than good.

Before dental disease takes hold, the gold standard in preventative dental care is daily tooth brushing. Be sure to only use toothpaste intended for pets, not human toothpaste. Start when they are young and that will make the process easy and enjoyable. For step by step instructions on how to brush your dog’s teeth visit Here is a great video about how to examine and brush your dog’s teeth

Additional products such as food, gels, water additives and treats that promote dental health can be effective as well, but beware of those products that don’t work at all. To sort through the weeds visit the Veterinary Oral Health Council (VOHC) website ( The VOHC is a group of veterinary dentists and dental scientists that seeks to recognize products that meet standards of plaque and tartar reduction. Their goal was to find an effective means of recognizing products on the market that actually work. Unfortunately though, they are veterinarians and scientists, they don’t know anything about marketing, and sadly their website shows it. But, it contains good information, just no glitz or glamour because they are not trying to sell you anything!

Many products without the VOHC seal of approval can actually be dangerous for your pet. Many water additives available at pet stores have xylitol in them which is toxic to dogs! One good water additive, with the VOHC seal of approval is HealthyMouth, you can check this product out at

At your yearly veterinary exam, your veterinarian will closely examine your pets teeth. Let them know if you have noticed any changes in your pet’s mouth or breath. If your veterinarian sees build up of tartar, plaque, gingivitis, fractured teeth or other problems, they will recommend a “dental” under anesthesia to investigate further. Severe and prolonged dental disease can lead to bone loss around the teeth, fractured mandibles, heart, liver and kidney problems. Many scientists believe chronic inflammation in humans can lead to cancer formation. Likewise, chronic inflammation in the mouth of your pet may also put your pet at risk for cancer.

For a great list of frequently asked questions about dental disease in pets please visit this page: I am not affiliated with him in any way, but he does have a fantastic website with great content.

Many owners will state that their pets acted years younger after a dental cleaning and treatment. Before the dental, they were living with chronic pain, and their owners never realized it. After the treatment, and painful teeth were treated, the pets suddenly appear happier again.

When preparing for a dental cleaning and treatment for your pet it is important to understand what you are getting for your money. The cost of the procedure can vary widely depending on the level of care your veterinarian is able to provide, and a $200 procedure may not be the same as a $1000+ procedure.

In the past, anesthesia was more risky, you may have even heard of a pet dying during or after a dental in the past. Nowadays with modern technology, anesthesia is relatively safe, but you want to make sure your veterinarian is up to date on the current standard of care. Many older veterinarians, even some with television shows, are not performing dentals using modern standards that increase safety. Modern techniques prevent common problems with anesthesia that include: hypothermia, dehydration and pain. Pre-anesthesia bloodwork is important to determine if your pet’s organs can handle the anesthesia medications and metabolize them effectively. Underlying organ disease can cause problems with anesthesia.

    The following list are the bare minimum services a dental procedure should include:

  • - a full set of dental radiographs
  • - pre-anesthesia bloodwork
  • - an IV catheter and IV fluids
  • - endotracheal intubation, oxygen and inhaled anesthetic
  • - patient warming during anesthesia with circulating warm air (a BAIR hugger or similar)
  • - anesthesia monitoring including SPO2, ECG, temperature and blood pressure
  • - supragingival scaling, subgingival scaling, polishing and lavage of gingival sulcus.
  • - pain medication during and after the procedure
  • - local blocks (like novocaine) if any extractions (removal of teeth) is performed.

Take the above list with you and talk with your veterinarian about what they offer.

Why Does My Pet Need Dental Radiographs?

Many veterinarians point out that dental radiographs increase the cost and make it less likely that owners will be able to afford a much needed dental for their pets. Many veterinarians feel that even if owners are unwilling to pay for dental radiographs, they can still do a decent job and help the pet feel more comfortable while limiting the cost to the owner. This is the nature of the veterinary profession, to want to help animals while limiting the cost to the owner. We want to make it as affordable as possible because we want to be able to help the pet.

However, studies have shown that in a large percentage of cases, dental radiographs uncover clinically significant findings in what would appear to be superficially normal looking teeth. How awful would it be to have just spent hundreds on a dental for your pet and then a week or two later your pet's face is swollen because there was an abscessed premolar that looked normal at the time of the dental, but dental radiographs uncovered that it should have been extracted? Dental radiographs do increase the cost, but it is usually 10-20% of the total cost of the procedure and well worth it. The pet is already under anesthesia for the dental, you might as well do it right. 

To read more about the studies showing the benefit of dental radiographs click here. 

Why are dentals so expensive?

Dentals take a lot of time and expensive equipment, there is no way around that. Many believe veterinarians are getting rich off of recommending unnecessary dental procedures and that just isn’t the case. There are too many animals that need real care and too little time to make up problems that don’t exist. Veterinarians got into this field for the love of animals, not to make money. If they became veterinarians to make a lot of money, they were very unwise. The average salary of veterinarians is declining, while student loan debt and the cost of equipment and medications has gone up.

The average salary of a veterinarian is about $91k a year according to the 2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics. Becoming a veterinarian takes 8+ years of schooling, and most new graduate veterinarians have $150,000+ in student loans and 8+ years of lost earning potential while in school. Veterinarians make the same amount as physician’s assistants and many nurses which takes less education.

The cost of supplies for veterinarians has increased dramatically. For example, just 3 years ago, the cost of a box of IV fluids was about $20, now it is around $100. Many generic antibiotics such as doxycycline have skyrocketed in price by 10x. The cost of anesthesia monitoring equipment and anesthesia machines can cost $10,000 and need to be serviced and replaced periodically. Dental radiograph equipment can also cost $40,000+ and ultrasonic dental scaling and polishing machines and tools can cost $5,000+ and need to be serviced and replaced regularly.

Most veterinarians wish they could provide their services free of charge, and all the supplies, equipment, labor and real estate that goes into providing care would not cost any money, and all pets could be treated for free, but unfortunately, that is not the case.

You can read more about the financial problems facing veterinarians in this article:

Anesthesia-free pet dentistry (AFD) is becoming more prominent. Unfortunately, this service is doing more harm than good to pets. It is tempting to believe their claims because it offers a cheaper alternative, and no anesthesia. But, if it is too good to be true, it probably is. For more information, you can visit Dr. Tony M. Woodward’s website, where he posted a fantastic article on AFD and documented cases he has seen of pet’s suffering from the aftermath


Why Aren't There Low Cost Dental Clinics Like Low Cost Spay/Neuter Clinics?

I work for low-cost non-profit spay-neuter clinics and have often pondered if it could be possible to set up a low-cost dental clinics. The goal would be to decrease the cost to pet owners and provide the valuable dental treatments these pets need. I have run the numbers and I do not think it is possible to perform this service better and for less money than what full-service veterinary clinics are currently providing without a significant multi-million dollar endowment from a generous donor.

Non-profit spay neuter clinics are able to exist and provide spay/neuter services at dramatically reduced costs and/or free because of generous donations as well as many tax-payer funded programs. When you take your pet to a low cost spay neuter clinic, even if you pay for it, you are likely only paying a small portion of what it really costs to spay and neuter your pets and your friends, family and neighbors are paying the remaining portion. This has all been made possible because the public has realized that intact animals lead to pet over-population, bite injuries, damage to property, and massive expense due to having to house and euthanize these millions of unwanted and sometimes dangerous animals in animal shelters. The public has come to realize that funds spent to spay and neuter your friends and neighbors animals is ultimately, more affordable than the alternative of unwanted litters and hoards of unwanted animals roaming the street wreaking havoc.

Unfortunately, dental disease does not have the same massive public health implications, so funding is not available to start low cost dental clinics. Often your local SPCA, may be able to help you out if you are low-income and on government assistance, but they are being stretched thin.

Luckily, dental disease is usually not an emergency, and is a predictable expense in the life of your animal. So while you have a cute little puppy with healthy teeth, start putting away some funds for the inevitable day when a big veterinary expense will come up. I highly recommend Trupanion insurance, I have it for my own dog, and I am not sponsored by them in any way, I do not profit by recommending them. However, Trupanion and other insurance companies will probably not fund routine dental cleanings, so that is something you will have to save and plan for.

I hope you enjoyed this article. It is a work in progress. If you have any questions, or would like me to clarify anything please comment or email me at